about PVC and PVC pipes

What you need to know about PVC and PVC pipes

What you need to know about PVC and PVC pipes

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a widely used plastic. At present, it is one of the most valuable products of the petrochemical industry. Generally more than 50% of man-made PVC is used in construction; Because PVC is cheap and easy to bond.

In recent years, PVC has replaced traditional building materials such as wood, cement and pottery in many areas. Despite the emergence of an ideal material in construction, there are still concerns about the cost of PVC for the natural environment and human health.

Many uses for PVC include: vinyl siding, magnetic card marking, vertical window cutting, turntables, pipes, plumbing, ducts and fixtures, inexpensive bags, dark windows (invisible) and in soft form for There are clothes, furniture or accessories such as curtains, flooring and roofing, electrical cable casings, light play balls.

It is also a material that is often used for water and sewage piping due to its natural cheapness and flexibility.

about PVC and PVC pipes

about PVC and PVC pipes

Writing Shaping Techniques

Powder mixers:

Mixing different materials is done by these mixers. Of course, it should be noted that there is a possibility of practical problems in mixing stabilizers, lubricants, pigments and باید their amount should be relatively small.

Gelling machines:

They are usually of the type of sheet making machines.

Forming machines:

Includes one or more rotary drill screws.

Calendars:

To make long sheets of rubber and thermoplastics, softened resin is passed between two or more cylinders.

Shaping at low pressure:

Molding by pressure and injection is very fast and is used to prepare molded objects with small and medium dimensions Injection molding, extrusion and thermal forming are other methods.

History:

Polyvinyl chloride was accidentally discovered in two small locations in the 19th century. First in 1835 by the artist Victor Regnalt and in 1872 by Eugene Bowman. In both cases the polymer was exposed when the white solid inside the vinyl chloride flask was exposed to sunlight.

Preparation

Polyvinyl chloride is formed by the polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer. Commercial production of most PVC is mainly done by suspension polymerization and less mass and emulsion polymers are used and solution polymerization is rarely used.

Polyvinyl chloride has a low crystallinity but is strong due to the large polymer chains (the result of large chlorine extraction). The TG is high at 81 ° C, but the TG is not high enough to interfere with the process in a variety of ways. It is relatively unstable to heat and light and emits hydrogen chloride.

This substance has detrimental effects on the properties of hand objects (electrical components) in addition to physiological effects. PVC is a hard plastic that becomes soft and flexible by the addition of lubricants. The most commonly used is phthalate.

Prior to the twentieth century, Russian chemists Ivan Strae Mislensky and Fritz Klit of the German electron chemistry company Grishim both tried to use PVC in commercial products, but problems with the process, hardness and sometimes fragility of the polymer thwarted their efforts. In 1926, BF Goodrich of Waldo Simon developed a method of softening PVC by mixing it with various additives. The result was flexible materials that were easy to process and soon became popular in commercial applications.

U-PVC (Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride)

U-PVC (Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride)

U-PVC (Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride)

There are also by-products that are extruded profiles based on high impact resistance polyvinyl chloride (PVC) that have a white exterior surface and are used in the construction of doors and windows used in the exterior wall of the building.

Profiles can be made entirely of raw materials or have a core of waste or recycled material that can be coated with hard PVC and coagulated.

For more information and purchase, contact; Info@PTNInternational.com.

 

 

Everything you need to know about PVC pipes!

What is PVC pipe and what are its uses?

Everything you need to know about PVC pipes!

Everything you need to know about PVC pipes!

Everything you need to know about PVC pipes!

What is PVC pipe and what are its uses?

 

PVC was first discovered in the late nineteenth century and is not only young in the construction industry but has a history of more than 70 years. These pipes were first produced and marketed in Germany in 1932-1939. It should be noted that some of these pipes are still in operation and samples of them have been excavated and are available without any damage.

 

Capabilities, especially the high strength of these pipes, led to the development of their application in various agricultural applications, water supply, sewage, transmission of electrical and telecommunication cables, well walls, etc. In the 1950s and 1960s, which is a decade of technological prosperity and growth, PVC pipes were produced from the softest to the hardest products. Due to its engineering and ability to specialize its applications based on technical knowledge and formulation, this polymer has always been considered by researchers and scientists in various polymer sciences around the world.

 

Existing articles on PVC confirm that PVC is not only non-flammable but also inherently self-extinguishing due to its chlorine bond. In the case of hard PVC products, this is quite obvious and testable, and anyone can easily investigate the truth of this claim by setting fire to a piece of PVC pipe. However, in the case of softened PVC products, which are other than PVC pipes, fittings and types of profiles and are referred to as products to which softener has been added, the flammability of the product is not due to the presence of PVC, but due to the softener The product happens. Proof of this claim is a simple method of extracting oil from a softened PVC sample and performing a flammability test on the remaining product, which clearly shows the extinguishing of PVC after removing the flame or combustion source from the part.

 

The amount of PVC consumption in the world

 

In the world, the use of PVC products in construction has a history of more than 50 years and their replacement instead of traditional products such as: metal products, concrete, pottery, etc. is not because of the cheapness of these products, but because of their outstanding features and benefits. Here are some of them.

 

  • Corrosion resistance
  • Chemical resistance
  • Strength to light weight and light weight ratio
  • Easy to install
  • Ability to connect to other polymer and metal pipes
  • Long-term tensile strength
  • Resistance to wear and tear
  • Impact strength
  • Low coefficient of friction
  • Lack of migration of organic matter and thus conservation
  • Water quality
  • Low thermal and electrical conductivity
  • Flame resistance
  • Provide PVC resin from low value sources and help preserve national resources
  • Affordable price and recyclability

 

About the combustibility of PVC

 

PVC is inherently fireproof unless some flammable materials are added such as softeners, in which case some flame retardants can be used to prevent the ignition of this part of the additives, which is enclosed during the enclosing process and prevents oxygen from reaching the igniter. Prevents the softening oil added to PVC from burning and makes the whole product flame resistant.

 

The difference between PVC and U-PVC

 

As mentioned, the first samples of PVC products with more than 75 years of life are still working, and this is a testament to the longevity of these products.

PVC and U-PVC

PVC and U-PVC

PVC is more resistant to sunlight than other polymers, which can be enhanced by adding UV stabilizers to products such as windows that are exposed to direct sunlight.

 

As mentioned, the terms PVC and U-PVC have nothing to do with whether or not the product is Anti UV, but rather whether the product is softened or not softened. U-PVC means not softened PVC.

 

It is also important to note that so far no powdered PVC products have been found to be damaged by sunlight, even outside the standard framework. This is corrected by the fact that soft PVC products lose some of their softness and flexibility over a long period of time and the migration of some of the softeners added to the product, and will be relatively drier than the original soft product. Of course, if the production is done according to the relevant standards, these parameters have already been seen and the product characteristics test is designed in such a way that the products that comply with the standard will not suffer such damage in any way.

 

Commercial cinema PVC pipe is a type of PVC pipe that is known by this name in Iran. There are several types of PVC compounds in the world that distinguish them from each other. PVC pipes are considered to be the most widely used pipes in the construction industry, which are produced and offered in various types of push-fit pipes and ordinary plica pipes in different standards. Despite the limitations of consumption, PVC pipes have a bright future in the future, and this is due to the many and important properties of this material that we are dealing with.

 

One of the most important properties of PVC pipes is the same as PVC pipes. It cools down and turns off. PVC pipes are the same as PVC with the abbreviation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are responsible for more than 50% of construction costs, and this is due to its cheapness, light weight and other important factors in the production and consumption of these pipes.

 

 

 

 

Consumption of PVC pipes

 

PVC or PVC cider can be used in almost all cases, especially in the construction industry. PVC pipes are among the few that have all the capabilities in most areas due to their high advantages such as chemical resistance and long life. Sierra PVC pipes, depending on the type of use in projects, can be used in the following cases, which are referred to:

 

  • Domestic sewage system
  • Urban and industrial sewage systems
  • Pressure and low pressure water supply networks
  • Power grids as sheaths of fiber optic cables and currents for insulation of this material
  • Telecommunications and related industries
  • PVC pipes

 

 

Production of PVC pipes, various types of Plica consumable pipes

PVC cider pipes are produced in different sizes depending on the needs of a project, but in the meantime, the quality of PVC pipes is directly related to issues such as the type of materials used in the production and how PVC pipes are produced. Compositions of PVC pipes Various additives including softeners, fillers, stabilizers, pigments or master batch and process aid with polymer substrate which are the same as PVC, the percentage and amount of which has a special rule, if not Due to the amount of materials and compounds used in PVC pipes, the quality and fragility of pipes and other manufactured products are greatly reduced.

 

 

 

 

 

Plica pipe production machine

 

The size of PVC pipes is mm

PVC pipes are the same as PVC pipes (pvc) have different dimensions and sizes from each other and each of them has different thickness according to the needs of the project. Sierra PVC pipes in normal, semi-strong and pressure types Strong classifications, each of which, as mentioned, have more or less weight and thickness, which comes with the following:

 

  • 20 mm PVC pipe
  • 25 mm PVC pipe
  • 32 mm PVC pipe
  • 40 mm PVC pipe
  • 50 mm PVC pipe
  • 63 mm PVC pipe
  • 75 mm PVC pipe
  • 90 mm PVC pipe
  • 110 mm PVC pipe
  • 125 mm PVC pipe
  • 160 mm PVC pipe
  • 200 mm PVC pipe
  • 315 mm PVC pipe
  • 400 mm PVC pipe
Laminated glass

Types of double glazing

Double glazed window

The double glazing system consists of two or more layers of glass that are placed in parallel at equal distances from each other and separated by a spacer around its circumference. In the space between the glasses, there is air or special gases without moisture (argon or krypton) with a pressure almost equal to the outside air. Double-glazed windows often use aluminum spacers that fill the inside of the spacer with a dehumidifier, which absorbs moisture from the air between the two windows and is completely sealed by a suitable sealant. If you use double glazing and insulated windows, you can save 40 cubic meters of gas per square meter per square meter per year. In addition to reducing energy consumption and noise, we will also have a cleaner environment.

Properties of double glazing

  • Reduce energy waste
  • Reduce noise pollution
  • Prevent damp glass
  • More safety than single glazed windows

Types of double glazing

  • Plain: This type of glass consists of two simple float glass walls.
  • Colored: This type of glass consists of a colored wall and a simple wall.
  • Reflex: This type of double glazing is made of a simple wall and a reflex glass wall that the reflex glass wall should be facing outwards. Reflective glass strongly prevents the passage of strong sunlight, but their drawback is that it darkens the inside of the building and is visible inside the building at night.
  • Securit: Securit glass is intended for high-risk and high-traffic areas. Securite glass is completely shattered when broken and does not cause large and dangerous pieces of glass. Side windows of cars are of the Securite type.
  • Laminate: Laminate glass in a glass factory usually consists of two simple glass walls with a thickness of 3 mm and a layer of resin in the middle of them. Laminated glass is not crushed when it hits a hard barrier and only leaves cracks. The front and rear windows of cars are laminated.

With the realization of the benefits of double glazing and with the introduction of UPVC profiles, the use of double glazing became more popular. Fewer renovated buildings can now be found with single-pane glass. The most important factor in replacing old windows with UPVC windows with double glazing is the reduction of thermal conductivity of double glazing compared to single glazing. The lower the heat transfer coefficient of a window, the greater the amount of insulation. The thermal conductivity of a window is measured in watts per square meter in degrees Celsius or Kelvin. In simple terms, it indicates the amount of energy wasted per square meter of window for a temperature difference of 1 ° C outside and inside the house. The following table is used to compare the thermal conductivity of double-glazed and single-glazed windows: ‌ a triple glazing has less heat transfer than a 35 cm wall.

Simple double glazing

This type of glass consists of two simple float glass walls.

Simple double glazing

Simple double glazing

Stained glass:

This type of glass consists of a colored wall and a simple wall.

Stained glass:

Stained glass:

Reflex glass:

This type of double glazing is made of a simple wall and a reflex glass wall that the reflex glass wall should be facing outwards. Reflective glass strongly prevents the passage of strong sunlight, but their problem is that it darkens the inside of the building and is visible inside the building at night.

Reflex glass

Reflex glass

Tempered glass:

Securite glass is intended for high-risk and high-traffic areas. Securite glass is completely shattered when broken and does not cause large and dangerous pieces of glass. Side windows of cars are of the Securite type.

Laminated glass:

Laminated glass in a glass factory usually consists of double glazing with a thickness of 3 mm and a layer of resin in the middle. Laminated glass is not crushed when it hits a hard barrier and only cracks. The front and rear windows of cars are laminated.

Laminated glass

Laminated glass

Glass wooded:

Glass or snow glass are glasses whose surface is completely covered and opaque. Light has passed through them but has no vision.

Glass wooded

Glass wooded

Convex glass:

Convex glass or bent glass, bent with a special device and used for facades for this purpose.

Convex glass

Convex glass

Sandblast glass:

Patterned glass, the surface of which is matte by peeling by sandblast machines and used to apply a variety of designs, Lego, printing and fonts on glass.

Sandblast glass

Sandblast glass

Antique rock

Types of building stones and their application

Among the characteristics of building stone are very high durability and strength, optimal polishing, high abrasion and impact resistance, cutting and polishing ability, wash ability, color stability, heat and moisture resistance, suitable tensile and flexural strength, Impermeability, resistance to climate change, high hardness and compressive strength, and stability to acidic and alkaline materials.

Stone is used to cover the interior walls of buildings, facades, road infrastructure, walls and foundations, street and sidewalks and various decorations.

Application of stone in construction industry

Floors and stairs

The stone used for stairs and flooring will be subject to abrasion and impact, so it must be very hard and have high abrasion and impact resistance. The floor stone of the building must be cut in one direction. Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks have this advantage.

In addition, floor and stair stones should have low porosity due to exposure to contamination so that they are impermeable and not damaged by washing with detergents and pouring acidic or alkaline substances on them. Among the stones that are suitable for floors and stairs, we can name marble and granite stones.

 

Building facade

Building facade

Building facade

Another use of stone is the facade of the building. Durable and resistant stones are used for the facade of the building so that they are not damaged by various environmental factors. Variable weather conditions, sunlight, frost, dust, acid rain and air pollution are some of the factors that affect rock resistance. Travertine is a suitable option for use in building facades.

    Walls and foundations

The stones used for retaining walls and foundations are arranged irregularly and without a special shape. Stones found in the area are used to save construction costs. Smaller pieces can also be used to fill the space between the stones.

Porous stones and stones that have layers and their solubility are high are not suitable for walls and foundations. But hard stones with high compressive strength and specific weight are suitable for this purpose. Most dolomite sandstones and limestones are a good choice for walls and foundations.

Covering the walls inside the building

The use of stone for the interior wall of the building gives it a very magnificent and cool look. Stone is mainly used to cover the walls of bathrooms and toilets, office buildings, shops and dining halls. The stone used for the wall should have a beautiful appearance and a polished surface. In addition, its porosity should be low so that it is not damaged by washing with detergent and its resistance is not reduced.

Covering the walls inside the building

Covering the walls inside the building

Roofing

Although stone is not used today to cover the roof of a building, but in some areas these stone coatings can be seen. Roofing stones should be lightweight, without porosity and impermeable and have high flexural strength. In addition, it can be divided into flat and thin layers. Chlorite schists and mikashists are among the stones suitable for roofing.

    Decorating the building

Stones that have a good color and appearance and in addition to high durability have good flexural and tensile strength are used for interior decoration. These stones are used to decorate fireplace walls, columns and door and window frames. Antique stone is an example of a stone used for this purpose.

 Decorating the building

Decorating the building

Types of building stones

     Granite

Limestone is used to decorate floors, interior walls, columns and sculptural facades. Granite is a type of igneous rock that is considered as a durable material due to its high density and hardness.

 

 Granite

Granite

Granite is expensive because it is expensive to extract, cut and polish. Granite is used for infrastructure, flooring and interior decoration. This stone is impermeable and has a high resistance to impact and water penetration. Granite surface can be polished and take advantage of its attractiveness in the building.

Quartzite

Quartzite stone is used to cover walls, building facades, stairwells and floors because it is very resistant to weathering. The price of this stone is lower than other stones, so it is affordable for use in buildings. This stone is very similar to granite but is harder than it. The appearance of this stone is crystalline and rough and its color is red, gray and brown.

 

Quartzite

Quartzite

    Marble

Marble has a high ability to be polished and has a mirror surface. This type of stone is used for interior decoration, flooring, columns, stairs and interior decorations due to its high gloss and beautiful colors, but because its resistance to moisture and pollution is low, it is not recommended for building facades. . This stone has red, yellow, white, gray, purple and green colors and gives a unique beauty to the building. This stone has a much higher price than other stones.

Marble

Marble

Marble bears no resemblance to marble. Marble does not absorb water but has little resistance to weathering and acid rain. This low resistance makes this stone work only inside the building. Among the types of marble, we can mention Khoy, Kuh-e-Sefid, Dehbid, Harsin, Shiraz, Kashan desert and Kerman and Dehbid marbles. This stone is classified into three categories: porcelain stone, crystal stone and cloud stone.

 

    Travertine

Travertine is used for building facades and interior decoration. These stones are used in tropical areas to decorate the exterior of the building. Travertine types include stalactite and stalagmite.

One of the most famous travertine stones is Hajiabad travertine stone, which is known all over the world. This stone has a cloudy, windy and wavy design and has an extraordinary cutting ability. Hajiabad stone is an ideal choice for use in building facades and hotel lobbies.

  Travertine

Travertine

    Sandstone

Sandstone is one of the stones that is suitable for use inside and outside the building due to its high adaptability. Among the uses of sandstone are its use in flooring, roofing, balconies, wall coverings, swimming pools and patios.

Sandstone

Sandstone

This rock is one of the sedimentary rocks that is formed by the connection of silica grains. This stone has white, gray, reddish brown, yellow, red and brown colors. Sandstone

    Antique rock

Antique stone is in the category of decorative stones, which is made by placing travertine stones next to each other. This stone can be used as a decorative stone in the interior and exterior of the building and garden landscaping.

Antique rock

Antique rock

    Gabbro stone

Gabbro stone is one of the stones used in the construction of cabinet counters, floor tiles, facade stones and decorative stones of buildings. Gabbro stone is highly resistant to weathering, so it is used for building facades and flooring.

This stone is an internal igneous rock that has a dark color and coarse texture. Gabro color is green, black and greenish gray, which has a unique effect with polishing.

    Diorite stone

Another stone used to decorate buildings, floors and stairs is diorite. This stone has gray, dark gray and greenish gray colors. Diorite stone

Diorite stone

Diorite stone

Plinth stone

Pomegranate stone known as ax stone. This stone is used in construction to prevent moisture from penetrating the walls. This stone is generally used at the bottom of the wall.

    Guillotine stone

Guillotine stone, known as scissor stone, is an example of a type of decorative stone. This stone is used in building facade design and interior decoration design. Guillotine is formed by placing pieces of travertine stones with a mortar that has a resin base.

Guillotine stone

Guillotine stone

Badbar stone or Malone stone

Malone stone, also known as wind stone, is used in the construction industry. This stone is used in designing the exterior of buildings, bridges, tunnels, etc.

 

 Badbar stone or Malone stone

Badbar stone or Malone stone

features of PVC pipes

The most important advantages and features of PVC pipes

There is a good reason why many different industries use PVC pipes in their processes and projects. Despite the fact that these pipe materials are relatively new compared to some traditional pipes such as copper or brass, they have a complete list of advantages over their material counterparts.

Even in the most widely used applications and environments, PVC pipe proves itself over and over again as one of the most durable and safest materials on the market. Due to its durability, safety and cost-effectiveness, it is often specified for use in water distribution (drainage, waste and valves), sewage and irrigation systems.

PVC has a light structure. Weight is a huge factor that pipes are concerned about for a number of reasons, so the fact that PVC is less dense and heavy can be a big advantage in some industries. Because the weight is lighter, the tubes:

  • Transportation is easier and less expensive.
  • Does not add bulk of the project to the building.
  • It is easier to maneuver in place.

In addition, the lightweight structure means that long pipe sections can be easily operated by one person. Of course, with really large pipe sections, a worker needs equipment to move materials, but in most cases less force is used to move PVC materials than to move heavier materials.

features of PVC pipes

features of PVC pipes

PVC allows it to be flexible without breaking. PVC is rigid, but can also bend under pressure. For example, a long piece of PVC pipe can be used to transfer groundwater. The use of PVC in such cases has an advantage because if the ground changes, the pipe changes with the ground and the pipe does not rupture. This flexible nature makes PVC, like everything from plumbing and sewage to pipes used to make electrical wiring under heavy structures, ideal.

PVC is non-toxic. When pipes are used to carry drinking water, the toxicity of pipelines is always checked because toxins can easily pass through the pipe material. PVC is a non-toxic material. In fact, many tests have been performed to ensure that these pipes are not safe enough to carry the water used.

PVC pipe is resistant to heat and cold:

In applications where pipelines are exposed to extreme temperatures, flexible pipe resistance is used. Many other types of pipes cannot withstand hot and cold temperatures such as PVC. This material is actually somewhat flame resistant and difficult to prove ignition, with a self-ignition temperature of 450 ° C.

PVC pipe does not rust, scale, pit or corrode, and its maintenance costs are low, preventing contamination from being transferred to water. It does not affect the taste or smell of water, and the source of lead is often not associated with metal pipes. Unlike metal or cement pipes, PVC does not react chemically with even the most aggressive water.

PVC is an affordable option for plumbing systems. Its light weight means reduced shipping costs as well as faster, safer and easier installation. This, along with the ease of assembly of the PVC piping system, means reduced equipment and work requirements. In addition, an analysis in 1996 comparing the cost of PVC pipe with other piping showed that the cost of installing a PVC system is 73% and 67% of the cost of a cast iron and copper system, respectively.

PVC pipe is also flexible enough to bend often without breaking, allowing it to withstand the effects or movements of the ground. PVC, when properly designed and installed, has an estimated lifespan of more than 100 years, with little or no strength.

PVC pipe is inherently protected against corrosion of internal and external underground pipes. Chemicals commonly produced in sanitary wastewater have no effect on the material. The smooth inner surface of the PVC pipe, together with the water purifier, provides excellent resistance to corrosive biofilms. PVC pipe does not deteriorate due to attacks by bacteria or other microorganisms and will not be useful as a nutrient for the growth of bacteria.

The Chlorine Chemistry Council (CCC) predicts that the widespread use of PVC pipes and the removal of other materials will reduce the potential for annual maintenance costs by 93% or more in some cases. The potential savings are in the hundreds of millions of dollars a year, and because water flows more easily than other materials through PVC piping, water companies and taxpayers save on pumping costs.

Low cost, efficiency and performance of vinyl make dozens of industries including health care, communications, aerospace, automotive, retail, textiles and construction the target material. Hard as a pipe or plastic like plastic, vinyl is a prominent 21st century material.

PVC Energy and Environment:

More than 50% of vinyl is obtained from salt, one of the most abundant sources on earth. At the same time, advances in formulation have made today’s products more durable, meaning that they save on alternative materials and require less maintenance for their useful life. Vinyl construction products such as siding and fencing, which do not require paint, stains or harsh cleaners, can regularly replace wood products that require these treatments.

Reduction of heating / cooling loads:

Vinyl roofing membranes are usually light in color, so they are known as “reflective” roof surfaces. They help structures stay cool and reduce energy consumption for ventilation in hot weather.
Vinyl consumes energy. For example, compartments in a vinyl window frame resist heat transfer. Sash frames and corners are welded by fusion for great strength and protection against air and water penetration. Many vinyl windows and glass doors meet the criteria.

PVC pipe measurement method:

When measuring for PVC pipes, always measure from the bottom of the ball at each of the adjacent joints. This allows the pipe to be placed at the bottom, maximizing the surface to be cemented together to seal.
Measure and mark the PVC pipe for cutting using a permanent marker.
PVC pipe can be cut with almost any saw. Popular options are chainsaws, reciprocating saws or chainsaws. Be sure to flatten the cut as much as possible to make sure it fits. There are also handy PVC cutting tools that you can use.
Cutting the pipe keeps the plastic at the end of the pipe. To ensure that the mating surfaces between the pipe and the fittings are clean, be careful to remove them.

The best PVC pipe

The best PVC pipe, Application of PVC pipe, Types of PVC pipes

There are several types of plastic plumbing used in residential plumbing, but PVC has become the industry standard for drain pipes and valve lines. PVC pipes are very popular because they are very easy to cut and move and because they are much cheaper than other options. In older homes, the main drain pipes and vents were often made of cast iron, an expensive material that was very difficult to work with. For this reason, upgrades to old pipe discharge systems are almost always made of PVC pipe.

PVC stands for Polyvinyl Chloride, a synthetic plastic that has excellent stability and stress tolerance. It is also approved for drainage pipes, it is also approved for water supply pipes and is therefore often found in outdoor irrigation systems. However, it does not tolerate high temperatures and therefore is not used for indoor water supply systems.

The process of putting PVC together makes the older materials used in pipe fittings easier. Pipes can be cut with an ordinary saw, and a variety of comfortable unions, tripods, and other accessories are available for assembling the system.

Pipes and fittings are held together with a solvent cement “adhesive” that actually “melts” the top layer of plastic into both the pipe and the fittings so that they form for integration and the joints are firmly made of water. And create air.

The best PVC pipe

The best PVC pipe

PVC is now used in a wide range of plumbing applications, all helping to meet the needs of modern infrastructure.

Understand the nature of PVC:

Which actually stands for polyvinyl chloride, is a synthetic plastic polymer. PVC is available in two different forms, rigid and flexible. Flexible PVC is used in many plastic applications, but PVC piping is made of rigid PVC. This material is very durable and resistant to stress caused by direct pressure, temperature change and other effective elements in pipes made with other materials.

History of PVC pipe:

One of the most diverse plastics in the world began as an accident in a scientist’s laboratory about 80 years ago. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was first invented by a German chemist in 1872, but was never patented until 1913. It was not until 1926 that Waldo Lonsbury Simon, who was looking for a synthetic adhesive while working as a researcher for BF Goodrich, invented plastic (vinyl) PVC. Soon after his discovery, PVC-based products such as insulated wire, raincoats and shower curtains entered the market. With the increasing use of vinyl, the industry developed more ways to produce and process new plastics.

PVC plants began to grow during the 1930s to meet demand. Just a decade after it was conceived, vinyl was looking for a variety of industrial applications. After World War II, vinyl manufacturers quickly found new markets for durable plastics when news of the versatility and flammability properties of vinyl broke.

Five companies produced PVC in the mid-century, and innovative uses continued to be discovered in the 1950s and 1960s. Vinyl-based latex was used on boots, fabric covers, and pneumatic structures, and methods were developed to increase the durability of refined vinyl, opening the door to applications in building transactions.

PVC pipe in construction:

Vinyl products have become an important material in the construction industry. Its resistance to corrosion and chemicals makes PVC ideal for construction applications, especially for transporting water to thousands of homes and businesses. In fact, plumbing is the largest unit application for PVC, accounting for more than 40% of total PVC production.

Water applications:

PVC piping systems are used in various areas to transport water, from transporting drinking water to remove sewage or waste to draining water from the ground or roof.

Drinking water :

Pressure water distribution pipes and fittings are the main application of drinking water distribution. The diameters are medium in size (usually between 75 and 250 mm). The main characteristic of these pipes is long-term resistance to pressure (evaluated in accordance with ISO 9080.

Irrigation pipes have similar geometric and mechanical properties.

Soil and waste:

Pipes and fittings for draining sewage without pressure inside buildings (usually vertical). These are usually of medium diameter (<160 mm). They can be made of compressed PVC or have structural walls (foam core).

Sewage and underground drainage:

Pipes and fittings for collecting and discharging wastewater without pressure and intended for burial on the ground (horizontally). These are usually large in diameter (160 mm and up to 630 mm). They can be made of compressed PVC or have structural walls (foam core or twin wall with a corrugated layer).

PVC underground sewer pipe

PVC underground sewer pipe

PVC underground sewer pipe:

rain’s water :

Groundwater products such as water fountains and waterfalls are available in a wide range of diameters (50-160 mm) to be suitable for both domestic and industrial use. Both hoses and side tubes are designed for outdoor use.

Buried rainwater drainage pipes have the same mechanical properties as sewage pipes but are mostly related to storm management (large diameters).

Hot and cold :

Polyvinyl chloride (C-PVC) pipes and fittings may be used for hot and cold water distribution and heating system installations. The main feature of these pipes is long-term resistance to hot water pressure.

Other apps:

Liquid transport is far from the only application for which PVC piping systems are used.

Cable protection:

Pipes to protect electrical cables mainly inside the building, the pipes can be used in corrugated or flat and generally with a small diameter (<25 mm). Larger pipes to protect underground cables (50 to 100 mm) are usually made of compact PVC.

PVC pipe protection cable:

Almost anything is possible with modern PVC pipes and fittings. Due to the wide range of pipes, fittings and valves available in a wide range of diameters and designs, connections can be made almost without any restrictions, as well as straight, bent, branch, tee, gearbox, There are clamps and brackets. Connection using compacted cement or solvent is easy, so it provides a versatile system without any gaps that is simple and easy to install.

PVC pipe fittings have been created that can not only be used for PVC components to create high-performance plumbing systems, but can also be upgraded using modern materials with old-fashioned systems made from traditional materials. Pipeline networking works easily and conveniently while maintaining a complete system.

Industrial plumbing applications:

PVC piping systems have been used for many years in industrial applications for everything from process cooling water to the transport of hazardous chemicals due to the high corrosion resistance of PVC. The harsh environment in chemical plants and the transfer of chemicals in terms of safety, economic factors and subsequent maintenance, which PVC is able to overcome, creates a high demand in piping systems.

Industrial PVC pipe:

Fire sprinkler:

C-PVC piping systems are often used for sprinkler systems installed in public places such as libraries, museums and theaters, as well as in offices, hotels and other high-rise buildings.

These systems provide lightweight and easy construction in this area and do not cause damage and scale.

What happens underground?

Changes in soil texture, temperature, humidity, oxygen, chemicals, organic matter and bacteria contribute to possible corrosion and damage to the pipe. The soil environment itself is the main cause of failure of iron and concrete pipes. Corrosion in the United States is estimated to cost $ 36 billion a year for water and electricity.

Breaking and breaking pipelines can eventually lead to severe water pollution and water leakage. Many cities have experienced outbreaks of waterborne illness and lengthy counseling on “boiling water”. Impacts from leaking pipelines include street caves, ponds and cavities. For example, a single tube of just 3.8 liters (1 gallon) of water per minute could be equivalent to 1.8 million liters (500,000 gallons) of water lost each year. In the United States, we lose 9.5 trillion liters (2.5 trillion gallons) of water each year, enough to meet the drinking water needs of every man, woman, and child on earth.

Biofuels, the rapid development of an organic bacterial community, easily occur in water system pipelines. Commonly known as biofilms, these bacterial layers attach to the inner walls of water distribution pipes and to each other, increasing the risk of water-borne diseases. Health officials often blame biofilms for water pollution. Almost immediately after attaching to the walls of the pipeline, the biofilm begins to build up, adding layer by layer, forming a plaque-like coating. The bacterial community traps nutrients, germs, worms and viruses to form an almost impermeable substance.

Such growth can block water lines to a sufficient water pressure. This poses a threat to homes, businesses and even firefighters. In 1996, for example, a house that caught fire in Ontario, Canada, was completely destroyed, in part because water pipes were blocked with biofilm. In addition, the biofilm helps reduce heat transfer, further corrode the pipe, and reduce the chlorine used to protect drinking water from the treatment plant to milk.

Advantages of PVC pipe:

There is a good reason why many different industries use PVC pipes in their processes and projects. Despite the fact that these pipe materials are relatively new compared to some traditional pipes such as copper or brass, they have a complete list of advantages over their material counterparts.

Even in the most widely used applications and environments, PVC pipe proves itself over and over again as one of the most durable and safest materials on the market. Due to its durability, safety and cost-effectiveness, it is often specified for use in water distribution (drainage, waste and valves), sewage and irrigation systems.

PVC has a light structure. Weight is a huge factor that pipes are concerned about for a number of reasons, so the fact that PVC is less dense and heavy can be a big advantage in some industries. Because the weight is lighter, the tubes:

  • Transportation is easier and less expensive.
  • Does not add bulk of the project to the building.
  • It is easier to maneuver in place.

In addition, the lightweight structure means that long pipe sections can be easily operated by one person. Of course, with really large pipe sections, a worker needs equipment to move materials, but in most cases less force is used to move PVC materials than to move heavier materials.

PVC underground sewer pipe:

PVC underground sewer pipe:

PVC allows it to be flexible without breaking. PVC is rigid, but can also bend under pressure. For example, a long piece of PVC pipe can be used to transfer groundwater. The use of PVC in such cases has an advantage because if the ground changes, the pipe changes with the ground and the pipe does not rupture. This flexible nature makes PVC, like everything from plumbing and sewage to pipes used to make electrical wiring under heavy structures, ideal.

PVC is non-toxic. When pipes are used to carry drinking water, the toxicity of pipelines is always checked because toxins can easily pass through the pipe material. PVC is a non-toxic material. In fact, many tests have been performed to ensure that these pipes are not safe enough to carry the water used.

PVC pipe is resistant to heat and cold:

In applications where pipelines are exposed to extreme temperatures, flexible pipe resistance is used. Many other types of pipes can not withstand hot and cold temperatures such as PVC. This material is actually somewhat flame resistant and difficult to prove ignition, with a self-ignition temperature of 450 ° C.

PVC pipe does not rust, scale, pit or corrode, and its maintenance costs are low, preventing contamination from being transferred to water. It does not affect the taste or smell of water, and the source of lead is often not associated with metal pipes. Unlike metal or cement pipes, PVC does not react chemically with even the most aggressive water.

PVC is an affordable option for plumbing systems. Its light weight means reduced shipping costs as well as faster, safer and easier installation. This, along with the ease of assembly of the PVC piping system, means reduced equipment and work requirements. In addition, an analysis in 1996 comparing the cost of PVC pipe with other piping showed that the cost of installing a PVC system is 73% and 67% of the cost of a cast iron and copper system, respectively.

PVC pipe is also flexible enough to bend often without breaking, allowing it to withstand the effects or movements of the ground. PVC, when properly designed and installed, has an estimated lifespan of more than 100 years, with little or no strength.

PVC pipe is inherently protected against corrosion of internal and external underground pipes. Chemicals commonly produced in sanitary wastewater have no effect on the material. The smooth inner surface of the PVC pipe, together with the water purifier, provides excellent resistance to corrosive biofilms. PVC pipe does not deteriorate due to attacks by bacteria or other microorganisms and will not be useful as a nutrient for the growth of bacteria.

The Chlorine Chemistry Council (CCC) predicts that the widespread use of PVC pipes and the removal of other materials will reduce the potential for annual maintenance costs by 93% or more in some cases. The potential savings are in the hundreds of millions of dollars a year, and because water flows more easily than other materials through PVC piping, water companies and taxpayers save on pumping costs.

Low cost, efficiency and performance of vinyl make dozens of industries including health care, communications, aerospace, automotive, retail, textiles and construction the target material. Hard as a pipe or plastic like plastic, vinyl is a prominent 21st century material.

The best UPVC profile

Improving the quality of UPVC profiles with nanoparticles

The best UPVC profile

Introduction:

Polyvinyl chloride, more properly but not commonly called poly (vinyl chloride) and abbreviated to PVC, is the third most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer after polyethylene and polypropylene. Conventional PVC is a lightweight and strong plastic used in the construction industry. This material becomes softer and more flexible by adding plasticizers. If no emollients are added, it is known as unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (UPVC). Adding nanoparticles to PVC increases its impact resistance and compressive strength.

The best UPVC profile

The best UPVC profile

According to the UPVC market; A new initiative in the UPV profile industry of the Middle East With the production and unveiling of the first Nano profile in the world of PTN profile industry, another golden leaf was added to this industry in Iran. April 19, 2014 In the first conference of large and intimate PTN family in Iran, the managers of this well-known and innovative company, in addition to unveiling the first UP and US profiles with the KICO brand, which is made using nanotechnology, presented their plans and policies. Explained for the future. This is the first PTN conference and now KICO, as one of the subsidiaries of PTN, has entered a new chapter of competition in the global UPVC profile industry.

Competition in the field of quality and innovation and creativity based on modern technologies; Read the special window report of Iranians from the first KICO conference: With this necessary explanation, PTN Industrial Complex includes a number of successful and leading companies with various and different products, including steel structures in various types of screws and welds, wall and ceiling sandwich panels, different profiles. Galvanized metal and steel, double glazing, split coolers, energy-saving lamps, sewage pipes (export), etc., and KICO can be considered one of the leading companies in this industrial holding.

The best UPVC windows

The best UPVC windows

Plans of KICO in the sales market

 

Behroozi, Sales Manager of Dunya Profile Development Company, welcomed the participants and members of the KICO family in Iran and said: There have been several external imposed reasons, including the almost absolute stagnation of the construction industry, the influx of low-quality and cheap foreign profiles, as well as the approximately 75% reduction in building permits, and to address the external threats of this industry It decided to revise its sales policies in the 1990s so that it could remain competitive in the past and maintain its market share by overcoming the bottlenecks of the recession.

 

Engineer Behroozi announced the most important program of KICO sales department this year as follows:

 

  • Review sales policies and diversify them so that, while maintaining past normal discounts, a separate discount will be allocated to cover part of the advertising costs of our valued customers, depending on the local characteristics of each region and the tastes of the people of that region. (Of course, under the direct supervision of KICO) the KICO brand will be promoted.

 

  • Establishing agencies in countries and cities where we have not yet seriously entered the sales market, as well as concluding contracts with all current customers and granting them sales agency if they wish and obtaining agency conditions, so that individual customers can transport and transport at a minimum cost. Prepare profiles of agencies with the terms of sale of the factory. According to the senior official of PTN Company, concluding a contract has two advantages: first, buyers can confidently plan and obtain the privileges stated in the contract for at least one year, and do not have to worry about procuring goods during one year, and second That the company can also proceed with its annual planning and, if there is a demand, implement its development plans and increase production and prevent the acquisition of surplus representatives.
window design

Important standards in the selection of UPVC profiles

One of the important standards in choosing a double-glazed window profile is its wall thickness. The international standard in this case is 3 mm.

The next standard is profile material. As we discussed in the article Types of windows, today the use of iron and aluminum profiles is not very justified. These profiles are a waste of energy and have little benefit to use. Instead, new and optimal generation of profiles such as thermal break aluminum, All wood and UPVC are the best choice in terms of quality and performance.

What is the role of galvanized reinforcement in double glazed windows?

The strength of the double-glazed door and window is provided by the galvanized reinforcement inside the profile. The desired galvanization should be determined according to the dimensions of the housing. It should also be noted that the thickness of the sheet should be at least one and a half millimeters.

What is the sealing tape in a double glazed window?

Another part that affects the quality and price of double glazed windows is its sealing tape. This strip is made of a type of rubber called EPDM, whose main function is to withstand a long period of time against repeated opening and closing of double-glazed doors and windows.

Sometimes people do not use these seals and go for substandard items for a lower price. Poor seals, unlike EPDM seals, rot and die in the sun. This issue after a while leads to noise pollution with wind in the double-glazed doors and windows.

UPVC profiles

fittings and metal fittings

 

What is the importance of fittings and metal fittings in a double glazed window?

The price of quality fittings in the market is a bit high. This is why people may use lower quality fittings to reduce costs. But that in itself is not a problem. The quality of fittings largely depends on the design of the windows and their size. If you buy a double glazed window from a reliable company that can best determine the fittings you need, you can benefit from higher quality at a lower price.

 

double glazed

the material of double glazed windows

What should the material of double glazed windows be?

One of the most important factors of quality and price in a double glazed window is the glass material used in the window. In this section, we will fully discuss the characteristics of a good double-glazed window.

Glass thickness in double glazed windows

The first and most important factor in the price and quality of double glazing is its thickness. One of the important and interesting points is that you should try to make the thickness of the two glasses used in the double glazed window different from each other. The reason is very simple. If there are two glasses with different thicknesses against sound waves, the disturbance and oscillation in these waves is much greater until two glasses with the same thickness are in the way of sound waves.

 

Glass glue

Glass glue

For example, when one glass is 4 and the other is 6, you have a double-glazed window that is much better soundproofed.

Glass glue on double glazed windows

Be sure to use a good quality polysulfate adhesive in your double glazing so that the penetration paths to the glass are completely closed. On the other hand, if you use a bad type of adhesive in double-glazed glass, it may lose its adhesion due to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation, turn into a liquid and move on the glass.

Vacuum between two windows in a double glazed window

In order to increase the quality of double glazing, it is first vacuumed and then a special type of gas is injected between it. But sometimes, due to reduced costs, vacuuming is not done and the special gas that has to fill between the two glasses is not pure. This reduces the quality of double glazing.

Glass dehumidifier in double glazed windows

Dehumidifier is another thing that is very important in making double glazing. Dehumidifier in cold and rainy seasons, especially in humid areas, prevents steam from forming on the glass and keeps your glass clear and smooth in any weather conditions. It is certain that sometimes it is recognized that the dehumidifier is not very efficient and important and it is not used or some kind of substandard material is used for it. This is also effective in reducing the quality of double glazed windows.

What is the importance of window design in a double glazed window?

But one of the most important things you can do is design a double glazed door and window for your home.

Designers try to cut costs by choosing cheaper materials and items to build a home in order to compete and offer you lower costs than their competitors. Sometimes the design principle is disproportionate to what it should be in order to reduce costs.

window design

of window design in a double glazed

This creates a lot of problems for the buyer. One of these problems can be the next higher cost to compensate for mistakes in the design of the customer’s double-glazed doors and windows, although if you do not want to make mistakes, you will have poor quality doors and windows that do not do their job properly and over time the quality decreases.

 

And finally, how do I get the best double glazed window?

 

Choosing doors and windows today is not simply a matter of our parents’ past and era. The manufacture of doors and windows has progressed so much that it has become one of the world’s great industries and a science. Therefore, you cannot choose a cheap double-glazed door and window without research and care, and hope that it has the same quality as the seller claims.

 

As you can see, it is possible to provide poor quality material in all components of the window. To avoid further damage, it is better to choose an informed according to the instructions we have given you. And make your purchase from a trusted and reputable store in the field of doors and windows.

PVC pipes

Important points about PVC pipes that you probably do not know!

PVC pipes (PVC-U), which are known as plica pipes in Iran, are the same gray pipes that are widely used in a wide range of projects of water and sewage transmission lines, covering telecommunication cables and electricity. . These pipes are safe, durable, economical and recyclable. These unique features of Plica pipes make them popular.

The main material of PVC pipes is a polymer that is composed of oil, gas, air and salt water and during the process of combination with other materials, PVC pipes are produced.

PVC pipes are classified in terms of degree of resistance to tension, heat, chemical and acidic and impact.

Safe and harmless Plica pipes

PVC pipes are a good choice for transferring drinking water. This is due to the high degree of impermeability and resistance to corrosion and abrasion, heat and acidic and alkaline materials. Research shows that PVC pipes are the only plastic in which Biofilm does not form or quickly decays if formed.

PVC pipes are durable and cost-effective

The first PVC piping system was installed more than 80 years ago and most of them are still in use. The expected life of a PVC pipe for underground pipes is 100 years or more. PVC piping systems show much lower failure rates than other materials. Long service life, easy installation and maintenance and low cost have made PVC pipes a very economical choice.

PVC pipes

Important points about PVC pipes that you probably do not know!

American pipe systems failure statistics in 2018:

water main

American pipe systems failure statistics

PVC pipes are the best choice for the environment

PVC pipes have clear environmental advantages over traditional materials. Plica pipes as a low carbon plastic material require less energy and resources to produce.

Due to the low weight of these pipes, less energy is consumed during transportation. In addition to long service life and minimal maintenance costs, PVC pipes are easily recyclable. Many new PVC pipes contain recycled materials. For example, the inner layer of three-layer pipes is made of recycled PVC. In addition, the ultra-smooth surface of PVC pipes reduces pumping costs and energy consumption. Leak-free connections eliminate water loss. This is very beneficial for the environment.

Recyclable PVC pipes

PVC pipes are easily recyclable and can be recycled several times without damaging their technical properties. About 50,000 tons of PVC pipes are recycled in Europe every year. This recycling is used to produce new pipes and a range of other PVC products. Issuance of quality certificates for recycled materials ensures the safety and quality of recycled Plica pipes.

Create jobs and save energy by recycling PVC

The use of recycled PVC contributes to the goals of resource efficiency and conservation of natural resources. For every kilogram of PVC recycled, 2 kilograms of CO2 are stored. Accordingly, CO2 savings from PVC recycling in Europe currently exceed 1.2 million tons per year. In addition, the primary energy demand for recyclable PVC is made up to 90% lower than PVC production. In fact, recycling PVC creates green jobs. 639,648 tons of PVC in 2017 by Europe in 2017 helped create 1,200 direct jobs in recycling units.

European PVC recycling in 2017 contributed to:

Jobs created: 1200

CO2 saved: 1200000t

Energy saved compared to virgin PVC production: 90%

Some famous brands of Plica pipes in Iran

Among the important factories producing Plica pipes in Iran, we can mention PTN, KICO, etc.

smoked double glazing

Everything about smoked double glazing for windows

smoked double glazing

Everything about smoked double glazing for windows

In recent years, the use of double glazing in building facades and interior decorations has received much attention from designers and architects. In addition to providing ambient light, glass can create a visual connection between the building and the outside environment, so they have a special place. There are many different colors of glass on the market, which is why double glazing is produced in different colors just like ordinary glass. Among the paints produced, smoked double glazing is very popular for windows.

Having the right knowledge of light and choosing the right glass can have a significant impact on the beauty of the space, the comfort of the occupants and the costs of cooling and heating the building. In the continuation of this article, we intend to examine the types of smoked glass for double glazed windows.

 smoked double glazing

Everything about smoked double glazing for windows

What is double glazed glass?

Nowadays, the use of double glazing is very common, especially in the exterior of buildings. According to the new law that the city council has passed on the mandatory installation of double-glazed windows in new buildings, we are seeing more and more use of double-glazed windows as facades of buildings.

The most popular type of double glazing for facades of buildings and windows are smoked glass. Of course, it should be noted that there are two types of dark glass. Bronze and smoky glass are the two most widely used types of double glazing for windows, which are often confused with each other.

It should be noted that smoked glass is different from bronze glass. In fact, smoked double glazing is a type of glass with a blackish tint, but bronze glass has a dark brown tint. Therefore, when ordering smoked double-glazed windows, this point must be considered.

Smoked and bronze double glazing, due to their dark color, are mostly used in building facades and facade windows. Of course, if we use this type of double glazing in the building, it can not be easily seen inside the building.

 smoked double glazing

Everything about smoked double glazing for windows

Why is it better to use colored and smoked glass?

 

When using a double glazed window with smoked glass, the most important point is related to the use of a double glazed window. For example, in commercial and residential environments, it is better to use plain or clear double-glazed windows, but in office environments, double-glazed windows with smoky or colored glass should often be used to prevent indoor visibility and less light from entering the building. do.

 

In addition, in cold geographical areas, clear or plain double-glazed glass is commonly used to maximize sunlight and absorb heat. But in hot and desert geographical areas where the sunlight is direct and prolonged, to avoid excessive heat, it is better to go to double-glazed windows. This type of glass is the best choice for tropical buildings, because it reduces the penetration of sunlight into the building.

 

Of course, it should not be forgotten that it is very important to establish harmony and harmony between the color of the double-glazed windows and the architecture of the building. For example, in buildings where composite silver sheets are used as facades, double-glazed windows with smoked glass are often used. Also, in facades that are a combination of wood, glass and brick, installing a double-glazed window with smoked glass can be very practical and beautiful.