There are several types of plastic plumbing used in residential plumbing, but PVC has become the industry standard for drain pipes and valve lines. PVC pipes are very popular because they are very easy to cut and move and because they are much cheaper than other options. In older homes, the main drain pipes and vents were often made of cast iron, an expensive material that was very difficult to work with. For this reason, upgrades to old pipe discharge systems are almost always made of PVC pipe.
PVC stands for Polyvinyl Chloride, a synthetic plastic that has excellent stability and stress tolerance. It is also approved for drainage pipes, it is also approved for water supply pipes and is therefore often found in outdoor irrigation systems. However, it does not tolerate high temperatures and therefore is not used for indoor water supply systems.
The process of putting PVC together makes the older materials used in pipe fittings easier. Pipes can be cut with an ordinary saw, and a variety of comfortable unions, tripods, and other accessories are available for assembling the system.
Pipes and fittings are held together with a solvent cement “adhesive” that actually “melts” the top layer of plastic into both the pipe and the fittings so that they form for integration and the joints are firmly made of water. And create air.
PVC is now used in a wide range of plumbing applications, all helping to meet the needs of modern infrastructure.
Understand the nature of PVC:
Which actually stands for polyvinyl chloride, is a synthetic plastic polymer. PVC is available in two different forms, rigid and flexible. Flexible PVC is used in many plastic applications, but PVC piping is made of rigid PVC. This material is very durable and resistant to stress caused by direct pressure, temperature change and other effective elements in pipes made with other materials.
History of PVC pipe:
One of the most diverse plastics in the world began as an accident in a scientist’s laboratory about 80 years ago. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was first invented by a German chemist in 1872, but was never patented until 1913. It was not until 1926 that Waldo Lonsbury Simon, who was looking for a synthetic adhesive while working as a researcher for BF Goodrich, invented plastic (vinyl) PVC. Soon after his discovery, PVC-based products such as insulated wire, raincoats and shower curtains entered the market. With the increasing use of vinyl, the industry developed more ways to produce and process new plastics.
PVC plants began to grow during the 1930s to meet demand. Just a decade after it was conceived, vinyl was looking for a variety of industrial applications. After World War II, vinyl manufacturers quickly found new markets for durable plastics when news of the versatility and flammability properties of vinyl broke.
Five companies produced PVC in the mid-century, and innovative uses continued to be discovered in the 1950s and 1960s. Vinyl-based latex was used on boots, fabric covers, and pneumatic structures, and methods were developed to increase the durability of refined vinyl, opening the door to applications in building transactions.
PVC pipe in construction:
Vinyl products have become an important material in the construction industry. Its resistance to corrosion and chemicals makes PVC ideal for construction applications, especially for transporting water to thousands of homes and businesses. In fact, plumbing is the largest unit application for PVC, accounting for more than 40% of total PVC production.
PVC piping systems are used in various areas to transport water, from transporting drinking water to remove sewage or waste to draining water from the ground or roof.
Drinking water :
Pressure water distribution pipes and fittings are the main application of drinking water distribution. The diameters are medium in size (usually between 75 and 250 mm). The main characteristic of these pipes is long-term resistance to pressure (evaluated in accordance with ISO 9080.
Irrigation pipes have similar geometric and mechanical properties.
Soil and waste:
Pipes and fittings for draining sewage without pressure inside buildings (usually vertical). These are usually of medium diameter (<160 mm). They can be made of compressed PVC or have structural walls (foam core).
Sewage and underground drainage:
Pipes and fittings for collecting and discharging wastewater without pressure and intended for burial on the ground (horizontally). These are usually large in diameter (160 mm and up to 630 mm). They can be made of compressed PVC or have structural walls (foam core or twin wall with a corrugated layer).
PVC underground sewer pipe:
rain’s water :
Groundwater products such as water fountains and waterfalls are available in a wide range of diameters (50-160 mm) to be suitable for both domestic and industrial use. Both hoses and side tubes are designed for outdoor use.
Buried rainwater drainage pipes have the same mechanical properties as sewage pipes but are mostly related to storm management (large diameters).
Hot and cold :
Polyvinyl chloride (C-PVC) pipes and fittings may be used for hot and cold water distribution and heating system installations. The main feature of these pipes is long-term resistance to hot water pressure.
Liquid transport is far from the only application for which PVC piping systems are used.
Pipes to protect electrical cables mainly inside the building, the pipes can be used in corrugated or flat and generally with a small diameter (<25 mm). Larger pipes to protect underground cables (50 to 100 mm) are usually made of compact PVC.
PVC pipe protection cable:
Almost anything is possible with modern PVC pipes and fittings. Due to the wide range of pipes, fittings and valves available in a wide range of diameters and designs, connections can be made almost without any restrictions, as well as straight, bent, branch, tee, gearbox, There are clamps and brackets. Connection using compacted cement or solvent is easy, so it provides a versatile system without any gaps that is simple and easy to install.
PVC pipe fittings have been created that can not only be used for PVC components to create high-performance plumbing systems, but can also be upgraded using modern materials with old-fashioned systems made from traditional materials. Pipeline networking works easily and conveniently while maintaining a complete system.
Industrial plumbing applications:
PVC piping systems have been used for many years in industrial applications for everything from process cooling water to the transport of hazardous chemicals due to the high corrosion resistance of PVC. The harsh environment in chemical plants and the transfer of chemicals in terms of safety, economic factors and subsequent maintenance, which PVC is able to overcome, creates a high demand in piping systems.
Industrial PVC pipe:
C-PVC piping systems are often used for sprinkler systems installed in public places such as libraries, museums and theaters, as well as in offices, hotels and other high-rise buildings.
These systems provide lightweight and easy construction in this area and do not cause damage and scale.
What happens underground?
Changes in soil texture, temperature, humidity, oxygen, chemicals, organic matter and bacteria contribute to possible corrosion and damage to the pipe. The soil environment itself is the main cause of failure of iron and concrete pipes. Corrosion in the United States is estimated to cost $ 36 billion a year for water and electricity.
Breaking and breaking pipelines can eventually lead to severe water pollution and water leakage. Many cities have experienced outbreaks of waterborne illness and lengthy counseling on “boiling water”. Impacts from leaking pipelines include street caves, ponds and cavities. For example, a single tube of just 3.8 liters (1 gallon) of water per minute could be equivalent to 1.8 million liters (500,000 gallons) of water lost each year. In the United States, we lose 9.5 trillion liters (2.5 trillion gallons) of water each year, enough to meet the drinking water needs of every man, woman, and child on earth.
Biofuels, the rapid development of an organic bacterial community, easily occur in water system pipelines. Commonly known as biofilms, these bacterial layers attach to the inner walls of water distribution pipes and to each other, increasing the risk of water-borne diseases. Health officials often blame biofilms for water pollution. Almost immediately after attaching to the walls of the pipeline, the biofilm begins to build up, adding layer by layer, forming a plaque-like coating. The bacterial community traps nutrients, germs, worms and viruses to form an almost impermeable substance.
Such growth can block water lines to a sufficient water pressure. This poses a threat to homes, businesses and even firefighters. In 1996, for example, a house that caught fire in Ontario, Canada, was completely destroyed, in part because water pipes were blocked with biofilm. In addition, the biofilm helps reduce heat transfer, further corrode the pipe, and reduce the chlorine used to protect drinking water from the treatment plant to milk.
Advantages of PVC pipe:
There is a good reason why many different industries use PVC pipes in their processes and projects. Despite the fact that these pipe materials are relatively new compared to some traditional pipes such as copper or brass, they have a complete list of advantages over their material counterparts.
Even in the most widely used applications and environments, PVC pipe proves itself over and over again as one of the most durable and safest materials on the market. Due to its durability, safety and cost-effectiveness, it is often specified for use in water distribution (drainage, waste and valves), sewage and irrigation systems.
PVC has a light structure. Weight is a huge factor that pipes are concerned about for a number of reasons, so the fact that PVC is less dense and heavy can be a big advantage in some industries. Because the weight is lighter, the tubes:
- Transportation is easier and less expensive.
- Does not add bulk of the project to the building.
- It is easier to maneuver in place.
In addition, the lightweight structure means that long pipe sections can be easily operated by one person. Of course, with really large pipe sections, a worker needs equipment to move materials, but in most cases less force is used to move PVC materials than to move heavier materials.
PVC allows it to be flexible without breaking. PVC is rigid, but can also bend under pressure. For example, a long piece of PVC pipe can be used to transfer groundwater. The use of PVC in such cases has an advantage because if the ground changes, the pipe changes with the ground and the pipe does not rupture. This flexible nature makes PVC, like everything from plumbing and sewage to pipes used to make electrical wiring under heavy structures, ideal.
PVC is non-toxic. When pipes are used to carry drinking water, the toxicity of pipelines is always checked because toxins can easily pass through the pipe material. PVC is a non-toxic material. In fact, many tests have been performed to ensure that these pipes are not safe enough to carry the water used.
PVC pipe is resistant to heat and cold:
In applications where pipelines are exposed to extreme temperatures, flexible pipe resistance is used. Many other types of pipes can not withstand hot and cold temperatures such as PVC. This material is actually somewhat flame resistant and difficult to prove ignition, with a self-ignition temperature of 450 ° C.
PVC pipe does not rust, scale, pit or corrode, and its maintenance costs are low, preventing contamination from being transferred to water. It does not affect the taste or smell of water, and the source of lead is often not associated with metal pipes. Unlike metal or cement pipes, PVC does not react chemically with even the most aggressive water.
PVC is an affordable option for plumbing systems. Its light weight means reduced shipping costs as well as faster, safer and easier installation. This, along with the ease of assembly of the PVC piping system, means reduced equipment and work requirements. In addition, an analysis in 1996 comparing the cost of PVC pipe with other piping showed that the cost of installing a PVC system is 73% and 67% of the cost of a cast iron and copper system, respectively.
PVC pipe is also flexible enough to bend often without breaking, allowing it to withstand the effects or movements of the ground. PVC, when properly designed and installed, has an estimated lifespan of more than 100 years, with little or no strength.
PVC pipe is inherently protected against corrosion of internal and external underground pipes. Chemicals commonly produced in sanitary wastewater have no effect on the material. The smooth inner surface of the PVC pipe, together with the water purifier, provides excellent resistance to corrosive biofilms. PVC pipe does not deteriorate due to attacks by bacteria or other microorganisms and will not be useful as a nutrient for the growth of bacteria.
The Chlorine Chemistry Council (CCC) predicts that the widespread use of PVC pipes and the removal of other materials will reduce the potential for annual maintenance costs by 93% or more in some cases. The potential savings are in the hundreds of millions of dollars a year, and because water flows more easily than other materials through PVC piping, water companies and taxpayers save on pumping costs.
Low cost, efficiency and performance of vinyl make dozens of industries including health care, communications, aerospace, automotive, retail, textiles and construction the target material. Hard as a pipe or plastic like plastic, vinyl is a prominent 21st century material.