Among the characteristics of building stone are very high durability and strength, optimal polishing, high abrasion and impact resistance, cutting and polishing ability, wash ability, color stability, heat and moisture resistance, suitable tensile and flexural strength, Impermeability, resistance to climate change, high hardness and compressive strength, and stability to acidic and alkaline materials.
Stone is used to cover the interior walls of buildings, facades, road infrastructure, walls and foundations, street and sidewalks and various decorations.
Application of stone in construction industry
Floors and stairs
The stone used for stairs and flooring will be subject to abrasion and impact, so it must be very hard and have high abrasion and impact resistance. The floor stone of the building must be cut in one direction. Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks have this advantage.
In addition, floor and stair stones should have low porosity due to exposure to contamination so that they are impermeable and not damaged by washing with detergents and pouring acidic or alkaline substances on them. Among the stones that are suitable for floors and stairs, we can name marble and granite stones.
Another use of stone is the facade of the building. Durable and resistant stones are used for the facade of the building so that they are not damaged by various environmental factors. Variable weather conditions, sunlight, frost, dust, acid rain and air pollution are some of the factors that affect rock resistance. Travertine is a suitable option for use in building facades.
Walls and foundations
The stones used for retaining walls and foundations are arranged irregularly and without a special shape. Stones found in the area are used to save construction costs. Smaller pieces can also be used to fill the space between the stones.
Porous stones and stones that have layers and their solubility are high are not suitable for walls and foundations. But hard stones with high compressive strength and specific weight are suitable for this purpose. Most dolomite sandstones and limestones are a good choice for walls and foundations.
Covering the walls inside the building
The use of stone for the interior wall of the building gives it a very magnificent and cool look. Stone is mainly used to cover the walls of bathrooms and toilets, office buildings, shops and dining halls. The stone used for the wall should have a beautiful appearance and a polished surface. In addition, its porosity should be low so that it is not damaged by washing with detergent and its resistance is not reduced.
Although stone is not used today to cover the roof of a building, but in some areas these stone coatings can be seen. Roofing stones should be lightweight, without porosity and impermeable and have high flexural strength. In addition, it can be divided into flat and thin layers. Chlorite schists and mikashists are among the stones suitable for roofing.
Decorating the building
Stones that have a good color and appearance and in addition to high durability have good flexural and tensile strength are used for interior decoration. These stones are used to decorate fireplace walls, columns and door and window frames. Antique stone is an example of a stone used for this purpose.
Types of building stones
Limestone is used to decorate floors, interior walls, columns and sculptural facades. Granite is a type of igneous rock that is considered as a durable material due to its high density and hardness.
Granite is expensive because it is expensive to extract, cut and polish. Granite is used for infrastructure, flooring and interior decoration. This stone is impermeable and has a high resistance to impact and water penetration. Granite surface can be polished and take advantage of its attractiveness in the building.
Quartzite stone is used to cover walls, building facades, stairwells and floors because it is very resistant to weathering. The price of this stone is lower than other stones, so it is affordable for use in buildings. This stone is very similar to granite but is harder than it. The appearance of this stone is crystalline and rough and its color is red, gray and brown.
Marble has a high ability to be polished and has a mirror surface. This type of stone is used for interior decoration, flooring, columns, stairs and interior decorations due to its high gloss and beautiful colors, but because its resistance to moisture and pollution is low, it is not recommended for building facades. . This stone has red, yellow, white, gray, purple and green colors and gives a unique beauty to the building. This stone has a much higher price than other stones.
Marble bears no resemblance to marble. Marble does not absorb water but has little resistance to weathering and acid rain. This low resistance makes this stone work only inside the building. Among the types of marble, we can mention Khoy, Kuh-e-Sefid, Dehbid, Harsin, Shiraz, Kashan desert and Kerman and Dehbid marbles. This stone is classified into three categories: porcelain stone, crystal stone and cloud stone.
Travertine is used for building facades and interior decoration. These stones are used in tropical areas to decorate the exterior of the building. Travertine types include stalactite and stalagmite.
One of the most famous travertine stones is Hajiabad travertine stone, which is known all over the world. This stone has a cloudy, windy and wavy design and has an extraordinary cutting ability. Hajiabad stone is an ideal choice for use in building facades and hotel lobbies.
Sandstone is one of the stones that is suitable for use inside and outside the building due to its high adaptability. Among the uses of sandstone are its use in flooring, roofing, balconies, wall coverings, swimming pools and patios.
This rock is one of the sedimentary rocks that is formed by the connection of silica grains. This stone has white, gray, reddish brown, yellow, red and brown colors. Sandstone
Antique stone is in the category of decorative stones, which is made by placing travertine stones next to each other. This stone can be used as a decorative stone in the interior and exterior of the building and garden landscaping.
Gabbro stone is one of the stones used in the construction of cabinet counters, floor tiles, facade stones and decorative stones of buildings. Gabbro stone is highly resistant to weathering, so it is used for building facades and flooring.
This stone is an internal igneous rock that has a dark color and coarse texture. Gabro color is green, black and greenish gray, which has a unique effect with polishing.
Another stone used to decorate buildings, floors and stairs is diorite. This stone has gray, dark gray and greenish gray colors. Diorite stone
Pomegranate stone known as ax stone. This stone is used in construction to prevent moisture from penetrating the walls. This stone is generally used at the bottom of the wall.
Guillotine stone, known as scissor stone, is an example of a type of decorative stone. This stone is used in building facade design and interior decoration design. Guillotine is formed by placing pieces of travertine stones with a mortar that has a resin base.
Badbar stone or Malone stone
Malone stone, also known as wind stone, is used in the construction industry. This stone is used in designing the exterior of buildings, bridges, tunnels, etc.